The Euro – Currency in Europe and in the European Union Member States as of May 1, 2004 – Map

Update: Please note that the European Union was expanded to 27 States on January 1, 2007 as Romania and Bulgaria joined the ranks of Member States.
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The Euro – Currency in Europe and in the European Union Member States as of May 1, 2004 – Map

Status of the Euro and other Currencies in Europe

On May 1, 2004, ten (10) additional countries will become New Member States of the European Union (EU).

The map below shows the status of the Euro in Europe as of that date.

The Previous 15 EU Member States

12 of 15 of the previous European Union Member States (prior to the ten additions on May 1, 2004) have adopted the Euro as their currency (Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Germany, Luxembourg, Belgium, Netherlands, Ireland, Finland, Austria, and Greece), with the exceptions being the United Kingdom (which still uses the Pound), Sweden (Swedish Krona) and Denmark (Danish Kroner).

The Euro in Montenegro

Outside of the European Union, the Euro is legal tender in Montenegro – but, as a part of the loose federation of the commonwealth of Serbia and Montenegro (former Yugoslavia), it is legal tender in Montenegro only. Serbia itself uses the New Dinar as its currency.

The 10 New EU Member States

None of the new European Member States will automatically be able to adopt the Euro as their currency on May 1, 2004. Quite the contrary, they must first join the Exchange Rate Mechanism II (ERM II) and within the first two years of EU membership, their currency can fluctuate only 15 percent either side of the benchmark valuation set as a float against the Euro. In addition, these new EU Member States must also meet the Maastricht criteria on budgets, debt, inflation, and long-term interest rates. Only then – at the earliest in two years – will any new Member State be in a position to qualify for adoption of the Euro as its currency.

The currencies of the ten ascendant European Union Member States are as follows:
Estonia – Kroon, Latvia – Lats, Lithuanian – Litas, Poland – Zloty, Czech Republic – Koruna, Slovakia – Koruna, Hungary – Forint, Slovenia – Tolar, Malta – Lira, and Cyprus – Pound. It will be interesting to see the development of these currencies over the next two years.

The Non-EU European States

The currencies of the remaining European countries which are not European Union Member States are: Norway (Norwegian Kroner), Switzerland (Swiss Francs), Russia (Russian Rubles), Belarus (Belarus Rubles), Ukraine (Hryvna – also spelled Hrivna), Romania (Leu), Moldova (Leu), Bulgaria (Lev), Turkey (Lira), Albania (Lek), Macedonia (Denar), Bosnia and Herzegovina (Marka), Croatia (Kuna), Serbia (New Dinar) and Montenegro (Euro).

For more information on the Euro, see
the European Union website
the European Central Bank Euro website (ECB)
Xenon Laboratories
and the copious links at Lehman Social Sciences Library
with additional superb links to articles dealing with legal aspects of the Euro and the European Union.

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NATO Expansion to 26 Member States – Map

NATO Expansion to 26 Member States – Map

NATO ADDS SEVEN NEW MEMBERS as of April 2, 2004

On April 2, 2004, seven (7) additional countries joined the previous nineteen member States of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) as new member states, thus raising the number of NATO members from 19 to 26.

As seen on the map above prepared for this purpose, these seven new NATO members starting in the north and moving southward are:

Estonia
Latvia
Lithuania
Slovakia
Slovenia
Romania
Bulgaria

NATO and the European Union (EU) Compared

It is of interest to note that the States of the European Union (including those being added on May 1, 2004) and the Members of NATO do not overlap entirely, although there is a declaration of partnership between the EU and NATO.

Iceland is not a member of the European Union but is a member of NATO.

Ireland is a member of the European Union but is not a member of NATO.

Norway is a member of NATO but not a member of the European Union.

Sweden is a member of the European Union but not of NATO.

Finland is a member of the European Union but not of NATO.

Austria is a member of the European Union but not of NATO.

Turkey is a member of NATO but not of the European Union.

Romania is a member of NATO but not of the European Union.

Bulgaria is a member of NATO but not of the European Union.

Malta and the Greek part of Cyprus will join the European Union on May 1, 2004, but are not members of NATO.

The discrepancies are an interesting study in the divergence of political, legal, economic, military and defense interests.

Update: Please note that the European Union was expanded to 27 States on January 1, 2007 as Romania and Bulgaria joined the ranks of Member States.