Give Your IP Address a Unique Nonaneticon + Legal & Policy Aspects of IP Numbers

IP Addresses are Unique, but…

IP Addresses are unique but, as noted by the NRO, they “are not property, cannot be bought, sold, traded…, [are] provided on non-permanent basis for use and [are] returned to [the] provider when no longer required.” Moreover, IP Numbers are shifting from the old, soon to be overcrowded IPv4 address form such as 205.150.58.7 (limit 4 billion addresses, of which only 1.5 billion are left) to the new IPv6 form 2001:0503:OC27:0000:0000:0000:0000 (16 billion addresses).

Get a Unique Nonaneticon for Your IP Address

We discover at Alex Mayrhofer’s blog, that he is, among other things, co-author of an RFC at IETF. Alex at his NoNa.Net website not only has a useful (to us) personal world-wide city mapping service (try it here), but he also has a feature at his page which can create a unique if not necessarily exclusive nonaneticon for one’s IP Address using the least significant 25 bits of the address (33554432 possibilities). We write “unique but not necessarily exclusive” because every device that connects to the internet must have a unique IP address, so that this can also be a router, a switch or a server, which means that IP addresses can be “dynamic” (e.g. temporarily assigned by an internet service provider) and not “static” (permanently assigned)” and that they can be shared by multiple users, often without their knowledge.

When you visit the NoNa.Net site, you will see a small icon which asks you to guess what you think it is. We guessed – before we knew that it was a graphic representation of our IP Address – and wagered the idea that the icon looked a bit and a byte like a coffee cup, so we guessed “cup”, and received the following automated answer from Alex’s resulting page:

_____________________________________________________

01010100101001100111100110100001

nonaneticon – to you it looks like a ‘cup’

the creativity of coincidence ::
Why always try to be creative when coincidences can provide surprisingly ‘semi-creative’ results? The tiny 5×5 pixel icon above is rendered using a technical requirement of any internet connection, namely the client ip address of your web browser’s connection. A binary, world wide unique number of 32 digits, more or less randomly assigned, depending on where and how you connect to the internet.

the internet equivalent of the inkblot test? ::
It’s close to impossible to choose a specific ip address. It usually does not matter at all which one you use, but it matters here. It determines how your icon looks like. What it resembles is up to your imagination.

33554432 different ones – even more chances ::
Despite an ip address may look short (and even memorizeable) there are 33554432 different nonaneticons (using the least significant 25 bits of the address). Not all ip addresses out of this range are in use, but anyway only a very small percentage of that range has been explored by visitors yet.

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Find your IP Address and more detailed information about it at:
ip-adress.com: English, Deutsch
or at
geobytes.com
: geobytes.com.

Note at the first site linked that the second “d” in address is struck out and colored red because “address” is spelled “Adresse” with only one “d” in German.

The first result – as an example for this process – we obtained at ip-adress.com (you need not enter anything, this all happens automatically) . To create the image below, we captured the screen result for the IP address location, cut out a section via Paint Shop Pro (Corel), added a border, and then saved it as a .png via Image Optimizer (Xat.com):

ip address locator example result
The second result – as an example for this process – we obtained at the IP locator at geobytes.com (you need not enter anything, this all happens automatically). To make the image below, we captured the screen result for the IP address location, cut out a section via Paint Shop Pro (Corel), added a border, and then saved it as a .png via Image Optimizer (Xat.com):

ip address locator example result
Notice in both examples – as will usually be the case for most users – that the exact location of the user can not be determined, but only the general location of the service provider (ISP), who has a range of IP addresses that are temporarily assigned. Note also that these alleged geographic locations can be random in a given geographical area and can vary considerably, not actually showing the user location at all, but only nearly so.

Legal and Policy Aspects of IP Addresses

In this connection, an important paper on Legal and Policy Aspects of Internet Number Resources was recently presented in Edinburgh, Scotland (Sept. 6, 2006) to the Sixth Computer Law World Conference by Raymond A. Plzak, President and CEO of ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers) and Stephen M. Ryan, Esq., General Counsel, American Registry for Internet Numbers. The contents of the paper are described as follows in their introduction:

First, we provide background on what IP addresses are….

Second, we describe the history of the evolution of Regional Internet Registries (“RIRs”)…. We also describe the more recent creation of the Number Resource Organization (“NRO”)….

Third, we describe the open and transparent public policy process that currently creates Internet number resource allocation policies….

Fourth, we address and contrast the legal nature of domain names, which is increasingly well understood and settled, and IP addresses, which is equally clear but different from domain names, but which has not yet been the subject of a definitive judicial review.” [emphasis added]

One should be aware in this regard that IP addresses are considered “personal data” in Europe and that misuse of them can put you in jail, ownership or not. See the Wikipedia, last viewed January 31, 2007 for a general discussion of this, with citation of the applicable laws.

The paper by Plzak and Ryan contains interesting observations concerning the internet as a new type of territorial geography:

It may be useful for lawyers to conceive of the Internet’s “geography” by analogy to the more familiar concept of nation states. The “nations” of the Internet do not end at national borders. Networks are the new “nations.” The “frontiers” of these Internet “nations” are border routers between networks. The “treaties” are voluntary peering relationships between networks. The Internet has a dynamic geography. New “nations”/networks are formed each day. New “borders”/border routers are established hourly. Routing tables are changed by the minute, and all of this activity takes place in most parts of the world without government control or intervention, and with no centralized control, although in some countries Internet activities inside the country are carefully controlled.

Courts struggling to adapt to the Internet have stated as much. In ACLU v. Reno, 217 F. 3d 162 (3rd Circuit 2000) the Court stated:

The Internet has an international, geographically-borderless nature [citation omitted]…Indeed, the Internet negates geometry…it is fundamentally and profoundly anti-spacial. You can not say where it is or describe its memorable shape and proportions or tell a stranger how to get there. But you can find things in it without knowing where they are. The [Internet] is ambient – nowhere in particular and elsewhere at once.” [Citation omitted.

Such statements definitely give the reader cause to again read Lawrence Lessig‘s CODE and other Laws of Cyberspace.

In any case, in this new territorial geography called the Internet, as Plzak and Ryan write – examining the prevailing case law – domain names ARE property, but IP addresses are not:

Not a single reported decision has indicated any plaintiff has successfully argued they should be permitted to “own” an IP address, in the manner famous trademark domain names can be “owned.”

Swedish Rock Drawings Deciphered as an Ancient Astronomical Sky Map of the Zodiac

This posting is not about modern law but about ancient law. It was the ancient ordering of the stars of the heavens, which, according to Bertrand Russell, gave men their first conceptions of natural law.

We have been successful – so we allege – in deciphering the entire complex of Scandinavian rock drawings at the World Heritage Site of Tanum, now in Sweden, and formerly in Norway (until the year 1658 – see the Treaty of Roskilde).

Our decipherment shows that the more than 1500 petroglyphs (rock drawings) at Tanum and its rock art affiliate locations form an enormous ca. 70 square kilometer planisphere (sky map of the heavens).

The graphic presentation of the decipherment is found below:

Tanum petroglyphs rock drawings art deciphered by andis kaulins

The Decipherment of the Tanum Petroglyphs by Andis Kaulins 2007

This sky map forms a shape of the stars along the Milky Way which was probably intended by its makers to represent a heavenly boat of the ancient Nordic seafarers. We have drawn in the line of the Milky Way to show this, but it is not, as far as we know, actually drawn on the ground.

As we shall be presenting a paper on this topic in May of this year in Horn / Bad Meinberg, Germany, at the Machalett Conference on Preshistory and Early History, this posting just contains the basics of our discovery.

It was 30 years ago in the year 1977 that this author first visited the petroglyphs (rock drawings) of Tanum, located in Tanumshede, Västra Götaland (historically Bohuslän), about a two-hour drive north of Göteborg (Gothenburg). Tanum was not well known internationally in 1977, in spite of over 1500, in part gigantic, rock drawings.

Tanum includes the following petroglyphic locations covering many square kilometers of countryside: Vitlycke (where the museum is located), Tanum, Tegneby, Aspeberget, Gerum, Ryland, Oppen, Slänge, Varlös, Fossum, Lycke, Hoghem, Västerby, Ljungby, Tuvene, Litsleby, Kyrkoryk, Orrekläpp, Rungstung, Satetorp, Ryk, Tyft, Hovtorp, Björneröd, Bergslycke, Kalleby and Trättelanda.

One key to our decipherment was the Tanum rock drawing location map found at the World Heritage Site for Tanum. Without such a complete overview of the area, such a decipherment as ours would be impossible, since it is the entire complex of petroglyphs which builds the secret to this enormous site. All of these petroglyphs as a whole represent the stars of the heavens, with multiple petroglyphs in clusters representing constellations of stars known to us today. Many of these along the ecliptic of course form our modern Zodiac.

One cannot escape the feeling at Tanum that we are witnessing the birth of modern astronomy among the ancient seafarers, whose need for a knowledge of star orientation in sea navigation is beyond dispute.

These ancient men formed these constellations primarily for practical purposes and not, as mainstream archaeology persists in advocating regarding these petroglyphs, for unproven rites and rituals, which may have been a part of the complex of the ancient world, but certainly not as its moving force.

It is in fact little wonder that there are so many boats (ancient ships) represented in the petroglyphic figures. To the seafaring ancients, the night sky was a sea of stars. We think it possible that this might be the location at which our modern stellar constellations were initially “grouped” by European man – for purposes of navigation in seafaring travel.

There are other proofs – beyond the evidence of the rock drawings themselves – that this astronomical decipherment is correct, e.g. the names of locations at which the rock drawings are found, but these proofs will first be discussed in a paper in German to be presented to the 41st Conference of the Machalett Study Group on Prehistory and Early History in May of this year.

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Golf and the Human Brain

We knew it all along.
The answer to why we still lag a few golf strokes behind Tiger Woods.
It’s the brain.

The January 17, 2007 Stanford Report points to a Stanford study which indicates that our golf swing and golf score will never be perfect, because “movement is not primarily a mechanical phenomenon”.

David Orenstein gives us this explanation:

For athletes, the inability to replicate the perfect movement might seem to be a frustrating problem that needs to be solved. But ….

[as we are told by the authors of the study]
“The nervous system was not designed to do the same thing over and over again…. The nervous system was designed to be flexible….”

The value of practice and training is that they can reduce the variation in the mind’s abilities, but they don’t change the variable way the mind plans motion. An analogy might be to doing math problems. Someone who has studied will find it easier to solve a new problem than someone who has not prepared.

Now, when they can tell me how to get the mind to keep from guiding that ball out of bounds, i.e. to simply eliminate that as a potential “motion variable”, we will have something serious to talk about.

A Coming Future Evidence-Based World ?

J. Peder Zane at the News & Observer in Scientists see dazzling future writes concerning the EDGE 2007 question, “What are you optimistic about? Why?:

The overriding hope among Edge respondents is that our increased capacity to gather and analyze information will spark the rise of an “evidence-based” world. We see this already in the field of criminal justice, where people convicted on faulty “eyewitness” testimony have been freed thanks to DNA. In the future, respondents argue, the instincts and perceptions that inform so much of our political, legal and cultural decision-making will be replaced by hard facts.

A very interesting article on Evidence by Clay Shirky, Social & Technology Network Topology Researcher, Adjunct Professor, NYU Graduate School of Interactive Telecommunications Program (ITP) is found at the EDGE World Question Center 2007.

Shirky puts eloquently some of the rants and raves that we have been throwing at the academic community for the last 35 years when he writes:

In school, the embrace of evidence is often taught as if it were a one-time revolution that has now been internalized by society. It hasn’t. The idea of evidence is consistently radical: Take nothing on faith. No authority is infallible. If you figure out a good way to test something, you can contradict hallowed figures with impunity.

Evidence will continue to improve society, but slowly — this is long-view optimism. The use of evidence dragged the curious mind from the confusion of alchemy into the precision of chemistry in the historical blink of an eye, but its progress past the hard sciences has been considerably slower. Even accepting that evidence should shape our views is inconsistent with much human behavior….

It is only in the last hundred years that evidence has even begun spreading from the hard sciences into other parts of human life….

Social science is expanding because we are better about gathering data and about understanding it. We have gone from a drought to a flood of data about personal and social behavior in the last generation. We will learn more about the human condition in the next two decades years than we did in the last two millennia, and we will then begin to apply what we learn, everywhere. Evidence-based treaties. Evidence-based teaching. Evidence-based industrial design. Evidence-based parenting.

Beautifully written, and correct.

Similarly, J. Craig Venter, Human Genome Decoder and Director, The J. Craig Venter Institute writes at EDGE that:

I am optimistic (and hopeful) that one of the key tenets of scientific investigation, “evidenced-based decision making” will be extended to all aspects of modern society.

We agree.

Science a Go Go : Evolution, Astronomy, and Authors at Law

Science a Go Go (http://www.scienceagogo.com/) has a zippy website from down under devoted to “the latest science news, research tidbits and science discussion“.

What caught my attention were their science book reviews. See:
Science a Go Go Book Reviews 2005
Science a Go Go Book Reviews 2006
for a good overview of what is going on in science,
through the medium of books.

Online book reviews, still fairly rare outside of e.g. Amazon,
or involving the payment of online fees for viewing, as at Antiquity magazine,
will surely play an increasingly greater role in science and literature,
and we were gratified to see Science a Go Go review our book Stars Stones and Scholars
on the same page as their review of Evolution: The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory
by legal expert and Pulitzer Prize winning author Edward J. Larson (2006).

Tim Radford in an interview with Larson in the Guardian titled A Life in Writing: A Voyage to the Origin of Species, writes:

Larson won the Pulitzer Prize for his Summer for the Gods, a book on the Scopes trial, in which American anti-evolutionists challenged science in the 1920s. He followed with Trial and Error, once again about the creation-evolution controversy. Right now, he is contemplating one book on the coming of telegraphy, another on Antarctica. Evolution’s Workshop grew out of a preoccupation with the history of ideas, rather than of kings and presidents. In the course of looking at the progress of the great Darwinian idea, it seemed to him that the Galapagos were the Clapham Junction of biology: all sorts of people passed through.

“I believed that ideas in general are the most powerful thing in the world. An idea was more powerful than an army. In the western world it seemed to me that science was the criterion for truth,” [Larson] says. “Darwin wrote his Origin of Species in 1859. At that time Queen Victoria was on the throne in England and James Buchanan was president of the United States. Now who has a greater impact on us today? How we think, how we live, who we are?”

We agree.

Take a look at Larson’s publications and awards and you will see that it surely can not be long before Larson begins to write about our books too.

All LawPundit Predictions for 2006 Came True

Not incredible at all
but fact,

the LawPundit Incomparable Predictions for 2006
all came true.

Compare our results with those of other crystal ballers linked at that same posting.

Important for Readers of Books: Entire World affected by New ISBN Numbers

Are You Ready for ISBN-13?
and the fact that:
Beginning January 1, 2007, all books will be published with ISBN-13s.”

Click this link to go the ISBN-13 Online Converter.

Not everyone needs this, but every reader of books should know about it, and most authors and readers out there probably are not yet aware of what is going on, so we alert to it here.

The reason for this posting is that a monumental change which affects the entire world of books on our planet started January 1, 2007 (actually, the sunrise period began in 2005). It is a change in ISBN numbers. ISBN numbers are the unique numbers given to books by publishers and used to order books wherever you order them as a user. The reason for this change was that ISBN was running out of numbers.

Take a look at the following numbers for our book Stars, Stones and Scholars where the ISBN-10 numbers (the ISBN-10’s) have been converted by our publisher to ISBN-13 numbers (the ISBN-13’s). These will be called ISBN-10s and ISBN-13s.

Stars Stones Scholars (softcover)
# ISBN-10: 1412013445
# ISBN-13: 978-1412013444

Stars Stones Scholars (hardcover)
# ISBN-10: 1412201357
# ISBN-13: 978-1412201353

ISBN-10 Numbers

Prior to January 1, 2007, ISBN numbers had 10 characters.
Those are the ISBN-10 numbers.

ISBN-13 Numbers

Beginning on January 1, 2007, ISBN numbers are 13 characters.
Those are the ISBN-13 numbers.

Beginning January 1, 2007, all books will be published with ISBN-13s.”

Important Links

Below are important links from ISBN for authors, retailers, publishers and everyone interested in books and the book trade:

Are You Ready for ISBN-13?

  • An overview for publishers with the critical do’s and don’t and the recommended implementation timeline. Why is this transition taking place and how does it impact your copyright page, your book covers and your bar codes? Find out now.

Pubnet EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) 13-Digit Conversion News

  • If you receive EDI orders via Pubnet, be sure to learn more about changes needed to support EDI transactions.

BISG Resources on ISBN-13

  • The Book Industry Study Group, Inc. (BISG) ISBN-13 Task Force maintains this site as a source of authoritative information and recommended implementation guidelines for ISBN-13.

ISBN-13 Frequently Asked Questions (PDF)

  • Brochure from Bowker, the US ISBN Agency

Guidelines for the Implementation of 13-Digit ISBNs (PDF)

A BISAC Briefing on How to Manage the Transition (PDF)

  • Information from BISG on operations planning.

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The readability score for this posting:

Gunning-Fog Index: 20
Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level: 12
Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease: 41