The Origin of the Cult of Horus in Predynastic Egypt : The Falcon was the Symbol of the Pharaohs on Earth & in Heaven – As Above, So Below

The so-called “Followers of Horus” were the people who first occupied Egypt and who created Pharaonic Civilization, starting in the predynastic era. Horus, the Pharaonic falcon, was not only their “God of the Heavens” but also served as the symbol of the first Pharaonic kings, the Pharaohs, and their predecessors.

The predynastic period of the falcon cult is testified to by many predynastic “falcon serekhs” (serekh = king’s name enclosure) in Egypt, all originating from the period about 3300 to 3100 BC.

The interpretation of the names of Egyptian kings has been a point of dispute among Egyptologists for quite some time. Our discovery that the Horus falcon marked heaven’s celestial pole in predynastic Egypt shows that the Horus names of the Egyptian kings were astronomical in nature. These names of kings were written below the falcon in the serekh and claimed certain heavenly stellar regions for the king. These heavenly regions basically correspond to the modern Zodiac in principle. The Horus names were therefore a type of calendar of kings. Using that calendar, one can determine the reigns of the early Pharaonic kings astronomically.
The Origin of the Cult of Horus in Predynastic Egypt DOC

Cartographia: Mapping Civilisations by Vincent Virga and the Library of Congress is a "Must Have Book" for Library Shelves

We are a bit late on this, but Cartographia: Mapping Civilisations by Vincent Virga and the Library of Congress is a “Must Have Book” for your library shelves. For example, it features the Waldseemüller Map, the first map to ever use the term “America“:

Waldseemüller map is the first map to include the name “America” and the first to depict the Americas as separate from Asia. There is only one surviving copy of the map, which was purchased by the Library of Congress in 2001 for $10 million.

We show this map below from Wikimedia Commons but see also LOC:

You can view 16 of the maps in small images at NPR.

The original Library of Congress press release stated:

September 26, 2007

Library’s Map Treasures Are Highlighted in “Cartographia”

New Publication to Be Subject of Program and Book Signing on Oct. 23

Maps are a visual record of human endeavor, each with a tale to tell. In their various forms, maps are models of time, diaries of political maneuverings and works of art that provide a unique vision of how the world evolved.

Drawn from the world’s largest cartographic collection, housed in the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress, “Cartographia: Mapping Civilizations,” by Vincent Virga, has been published by the Library in association with Little, Brown and Company.

Comprising more than 250 maps, “Cartographia” celebrates the work of those who have charted the world from the dawn of civilization to the present. Among the rare gems included in the book are the 1507 Waldseemüller world map, the first to include the designation “America”; Orelius’s “Theatrum Orbis Terrarum” of 1570, considered to be the first modern atlas; rare maps from Africa, Asia and Oceania that challenge traditional Western perspectives; William Faulkner’s hand-drawn 1936 map of the fictional Yoknapatawpha County, Miss.; and a map of the human genome.

Vincent Virga is the author of “Eyes of the Nation: A Visual History of the United States,” which was a main selection of the Book-of-the-Month Club and the History Book Club.

Virga and co-author Ron Grim will discuss “Cartographia” as part of the Library’s Books & Beyond author series at 6 p.m. on Tuesday, Oct. 23, in the Montpelier Room, located on the sixth floor of the Library’s James Madison Building, 101 Independence Ave. S.E., Washington, D.C. The program, which is free and open to the public, is sponsored jointly by the Center for the Book, the Geography and Map Division and the Publishing Office. For more information, contact the Center for the Book at (202) 707-5221.

“Cartographia: Mapping Civilizations,” a 272-page hardcover book with more than 250 color maps and illustrations, is available for $60 from major bookstores nationwide and from the Library of Congress Sales Shop, Washington, D.C. 20540-4985. Credit card orders are taken at (888) 682-3557. Online orders can be placed at

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PR 07-192
ISSN 0731-3527

Königstein im Taunus ca. 1895 : Photograph of the Detroit Photographic Company via the Library of Congress : Rendering 1646 AD : Modern Video of Town

Since the LawPundit was born in Königstein im Taunus, I have added some more information for family and friends and for anyone else interested in this part of Germany.

Königstein im Taunus in the late 19th Century (1890 to 1900) : Photograph at the Library of Congress, also found at the Wikipedia from the Wikimedia Commons:

The Evangelical Immanuel Church is seen just below the castle to the left at the top of the picture. Compare this to a rendering of Königstein from the year 1646 when the castle was still intact. Königstein means “the King’s Stone, Kingston”. It was a seat of kings. One sees that a church was at the same location as the Immanuel Church then as well. The bottom picture shows the castle of Lahnstein.

A modern “town portrait” of Königstein im Taunus (Stadtportrait Königstein im Taunus-Video) by Clipfish user chebs_76 (Sven Krebs) can be viewed at, where the Immanuel Church and the castle ruins are shown – except for short German texts at the end and the beginning by the video-maker, the entire video is presented with English-language background music:

Below is the data for the Library of Congress photograph further above:
Library of Congress
Digital ID: ppmsca 00396 Source: digital file from original
Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-00396 (digital file from original)
Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA
Retrieve higher resolution JPEG version (212 kilobytes)
Retrieve uncompressed archival TIFF version (28 megabytes)

Königstein im Taunus : Clovis I : The Rothschilds : Frankfurt : Deutsche Bank : Financial Center of the European Union

Königstein has an interesting history which reaches back into ancient legend. As noted at the Wikipedia:

Shrouded in legend, the town’s founding date is unknown. The best known legend says that it was the Merovingian King Chlodwig (466-511) [Clovis I], who had a castle built on a mountain and a chapel in a neighbouring dale, who also founded the town in thanks for a prophecy that came his way there from a maiden who promised him victory over the Alemanni – which did indeed come true.

Clovis I was an important king for the history of Europe, and through his religious conversion for the spread of Christianity in Europe, and he was especially important for the rise of the nation-state France:

The legacy of Clovis is well-established on three heads: his unification of the Frankish nation, his conquest of Gaul, and his conversion to the Roman Catholic Faith. By the first act, he assured the influence of his people in wider affairs, something no petty regional king could accomplish. By the second act, he laid the foundations of a later nation-state: France. Finally, by the third act, he made himself the ally of the papacy and its protector as well as that of the people, who were mostly Catholics.

In modern times, Königstein im Taunus is an affluent residential enclave and spa outside of Frankfurt am Main with the highest purchasing power per capita in the State of Hesse. It is especially known for the Villa Rothschild, currently a Leading Hotel of the World, which was built from 1888 to 1894 as a home for the banker Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild, and known since 1949 as the „Wiege der Bundesrepublik“ (cradle of the Federal Republic of Germany), because it was here that the governors of the States of post-World-War II Germany set the course for the reconstruction of the German nation-state.

Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild left no male heirs and thus, by Rothschild family tradition, he was the last of the Frankfurt (German) branch of the Rothschild banking dynasty, so that the bank had to be liquidated, being merged with the Disconto-Gesellschaft of Berlin, which after numerous subsequent mergers, became what is today the Deutsche Bank. And, of course, Frankfurt am Main is today the financial heart of the European Union.